Dysautonomia diagnostic AAN Guidlines

Dysautonomia Handbook

Mustafa HI, Fessel JP, Barwise J, Shannon JR, Raj SR, Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, Robertson D. DysautonomiaPerioperative Implications. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. 2012 Jan 1;116(1):205-15.

Gazit Y, Nahir AM, Grahame R, Jacob G. Dysautonomia in the joint hypermobility syndrome. The American journal of medicine. 2003 Jul 31;115(1):33-40.

De Wandele I, Rombaut L, Leybaert L, Van de Borne P, De Backer T, Malfait F, De Paepe A, Calders P. Dysautonomia and its underlying mechanisms in the hypermobility type of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. InSeminars in arthritis and rheumatism 2014 Aug 31 (Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 93-100). WB Saunders.

De Wandele I, Calders P, Peersman W, Rimbaut S, De Backer T, Malfait F, De Paepe A, Rombaut L. Autonomic symptom burden in the hypermobility type of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: A comparative study with two other EDS types, fibromyalgia, and healthy controls. InSeminars in arthritis and rheumatism 2014 Dec 31 (Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 353-361). WB Saunders.

Jones PK, Gibbons CH. Autonomic function testing: an important diagnostic test for patients with syncope. Practical neurology. 2015 Oct 1;15(5):346-51.

ILLIGENS, Ben MW; GIBBONS, Christopher H. Sweat testing to evaluate autonomic function. Clinical Autonomic Research, 2009, 19. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 79-87.


Benarroch EE. Postural tachycardia syndrome: a heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder. InMayo Clinic Proceedings 2012 Dec 31 (Vol. 87, No. 12, pp. 1214-1225). Elsevier.

Mathias CJ, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R. Postural tachycardia syndrome—current experience and concepts. Nature Reviews Neurology. 2012 Jan 1;8(1):22-34.

Park KJ, Singer W, Sletten DM, Low PA, Bharucha AE. Gastric emptying in postural tachycardia syndrome: a preliminary report. Clinical Autonomic Research. 2013 Aug 1;23(4):163-7.

Loavenbruck A, Iturrino J, Singer W, Sletten DM, Low PA, Zinsmeister AR, Bharucha AE. Disturbances of gastrointestinal transit and autonomic functions in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Neurogastroenterology & Motility. 2015 Jan 1;27(1):92-8.

Li H, Yu X, Liles C, Khan M, Vanderlinde-Wood M, Galloway A, Zillner C, Benbrook A, Reim S, Collier D, Hill MA. Autoimmune basis for postural tachycardia syndrome. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2014 Jan 3;3(1):e000755.

Nwazue VC, Raj SR. Confounders of vasovagal syncope: postural tachycardia syndrome. Cardiology clinics. 2013 Feb 28;31(1):101-9.

Shibao C, Arzubiaga C, Roberts LJ, Raj S, Black B, Harris P, Biaggioni I. Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome in mast cell activation disorders. Hypertension. 2005 Mar 1;45(3):385-90.

Sheldon RS, Grubb BP, Olshansky B, Shen WK, Calkins H, Brignole M, Raj SR, Krahn AD, Morillo CA, Stewart JM, Sutton R. 2015 Heart Rhythm Society expert consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, and vasovagal syncope. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Jun 1;12(6):e41-63.

Mallien J, Isenmann S, Mrazek A, Haensch CA. Sleep disturbances and autonomic dysfunction in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Frontiers in neurology. 2014;5.

Huang H, Deb A, Culbertson C, Morgenshtern K, DePold Hohler A. Dermatological Manifestations of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome Are Common and Diverse. Journal of Clinical Neurology. 2016 Jan 1;12(1):75-8.

Grigoriou E, Boris JR, Dormans JP. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Association with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Orthopaedic Considerations. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®. 2015 Feb 1;473(2):722-8.

Blitshteyn S. Autoimmune markers and autoimmune disorders in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Lupus. 2015 Nov 1;24(13):1364-9.

Garland EM, Celedonio JE, Raj SR. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Beyond Orthostatic Intolerance. Current neurology and neuroscience reports. 2015 Sep 1;15(9):1-1.

Shin KJ, Kim SE, Park KM, Park J, Ha SY, Kwon OY. Cerebral hemodynamics in orthostatic intolerance with normal head‐up tilt test. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. 2015 Oct 1.

Wang LB, Culbertson CJ, Deb A, Morgenshtern K, Huang H, Hohler AD. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in postural tachycardia syndrome. Journal of the neurological sciences. 2015 Dec 15;359(1):193-6.

Goodkin MB, Bellew LJ. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment for Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 2014 Nov 1;114(11):874-7.

Kanjwal K, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb BP. Autonomic dysfunction presenting as postural tachycardia syndrome following traumatic brain injury. Cardiol J. 2010 Sep 1;17(5):482-7.

Miglis MG, Muppidi S, Feakins C, Fong L, Prieto T, Jaradeh S. Sleep disorders in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome. Clinical Autonomic Research. 2016 Feb 1;26(1):67-73.

Kanjwal K, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Saeed B, Grubb BP. Autonomic dysfunction presenting as orthostatic intolerance in patients suffering from mitochondrial cytopathy. Clinical cardiology. 2010 Oct 1;33(10):626-9.


Low PA, Tomalia VA. Orthostatic hypotension: mechanisms, causes, management. Journal of Clinical Neurology. 2015 Jul 1;11(3):220-6.

Kaufmann H, Norcliffe-Kaufmann L, Palma JA. Droxidopa in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Expert review of cardiovascular therapy. 2015 Aug 3;13(8):875-91.

Vijayan J, Sharma VK. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension–management update and role of droxidopa. Therapeutics and clinical risk management. 2015;8:915.

Figueroa JJ, Basford JR, Low PA. Preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: as easy as A, B, C. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine. 2010 May;77(5):298.

Halliwill JR, Sieck DC, Romero SA, Buck TM, Ely MR. Blood pressure regulation X: what happens when the muscle pump is lost? Post-exercise hypotension and syncope. European journal of applied physiology. 2014 Mar 1;114(3):561-78.

Ricci F, De Caterina R, Fedorowski A. Orthostatic hypotension: epidemiology, prognosis, and treatment. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015 Aug 18;66(7):848-60.

Isaacson SH. Managed care approach to the treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. The American journal of managed care. 2015 Oct;21(13 Suppl):s258-68.

Loavenbruck A, Sandroni P. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: roles of norepinephrine deficiency in its causes, its treatment, and future research directions. Current medical research and opinion. 2015 Nov 2;31(11):2095-104.

KAUFMANN, Horacio; NORCLIFFE-KAUFMANN, Lucy; PALMA, Jose-Alberto. Droxidopa in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Expert review of cardiovascular therapy, 2015, 13. Jg., Nr. 8, S. 875-891.